Federalisation of the European Union

Proposals to federalise the European Union

European Union
European Economic Area
Schengen Area
Eurozone
This article is part of a series on
Flag of Europe.svg
  •  Austria
  •  Belgium
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Croatia
  •  Cyprus
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Denmark
  •  Estonia
  •  Finland
  •  France
  •  Germany
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
  •  Ireland
  •  Italy
  •  Latvia
  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malta
  •  Netherlands
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Romania
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden




  • Treaty of Paris (1951)
  • Treaty of Rome (1957)
  • Euratom Treaty (1957)
  • Merger Treaty (1965)
  • Single European Act (1986)
  • Maastricht Treaty (1992)
  • Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)
  • Treaty of Nice (2001)
  • Treaty of Lisbon (2007)


Treaties of accession
1972, 1979, 1985, 1994, 2003, 2005, 2011

Treaties of succession
1984, 2020

Other treaties
  • Schengen Agreement (1985)
  • European Economic Area Agreement (1992)

Abandoned treaties and agreements
Executive institutions
European Council

European Commission

Council of the EU
 Czech Republic
(July–December 2022)

Configurations


European Parliament
(Members)

Judicial institutions
Economic and monetary institutions
European Central Bank
Other bodies
European Investment Bank Group
  • Investment Bank
  • Investment Fund
  • EIB Institute

European Stability Mechanism
  • European Stability Mechanism

European University Institute
  • European University Institute

Unified Patent Court
  • Unified Patent Court


Other independent bodies


Inter-institutional bodies
Euratom members
  •  Austria
  •  Belgium
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Croatia
  •  Cyprus
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Denmark
  •  Estonia
  •  Finland
  •  France
  •  Germany
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
  •  Ireland
  •  Italy
  •  Latvia
  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malta
  •  Netherlands
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Romania
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden

Associated states
  •  Switzerland
  •  United Kingdom

Euratom since 1 January 2021
Eurozone members
  • Austria Austria
  • Belgium Belgium
  • Cyprus Cyprus
  • Estonia Estonia
  • Finland Finland
  • France France
  • Germany Germany
  • Greece Greece
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • Italy Italy
  • Latvia Latvia
  • Lithuania Lithuania
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg
  • Malta Malta
  • Netherlands Netherlands
  • Portugal Portugal
  • Slovakia Slovakia
  • Slovenia Slovenia
  • Spain Spain



Eurogroup



  • Bulgaria Bulgarian lev
  • Croatia Croatian kuna
  • Czech Republic Czech koruna
  • Denmark Danish krone
  • Hungary Hungarian forint
  • Poland Polish złoty
  • Romania Romanian leu
  • Sweden Swedish krona


Non Euro countries relationship to Euro
Eurozone since 2015
Schengen Area
  •  Austria
  •  Belgium
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Denmark
  •  Estonia
  •  Finland
  •  France
  •  Germany
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
  •  Italy
  •  Latvia
  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malta
  •  Netherlands
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden

Non-EU members
  •  Iceland
  •  Liechtenstein
  •  Norway
  •  Switzerland


Non-Schengen Area states
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Croatia
  •  Cyprus
  •  Ireland
  •  Romania
Schengen Area since 2015
European Economic Area
EEA members
  • Austria Austria
  • Belgium Belgium
  • Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • Cyprus Cyprus
  • Czech Republic Czech Republic
  • Denmark Denmark
  • Estonia Estonia
  • Finland Finland
  • France France
  • Germany Germany
  • Greece Greece
  • Hungary Hungary
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • Italy Italy
  • Latvia Latvia
  • Lithuania Lithuania
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg
  • Malta Malta
  • Netherlands Netherlands
  • Poland Poland
  • Portugal Portugal
  • Romania Romania
  • Slovakia Slovakia
  • Slovenia Slovenia
  • Spain Spain
  • Sweden Sweden

Non-EU members
  •  Iceland
  •  Liechtenstein
  •  Norway

Topics
European Economic Area
  • 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994
    1999, 2004, 2009, 2014
  • 2019 (last election)
  • European political parties
  • Constituencies

Elections in EU member states
  • Austria Austria
  • Belgium Belgium
  • Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • Croatia Croatia
  • Cyprus Cyprus
  • Czech Republic Czech Republic
  • Denmark Denmark
  • Estonia Estonia
  • Finland Finland
  • France France
  • Germany Germany
  • Greece Greece
  • Hungary Hungary
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • Italy Italy
  • Latvia Latvia
  • Lithuania Lithuania
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg
  • Malta Malta
  • Netherlands Netherlands
  • Poland Poland
  • Portugal Portugal
  • Romania Romania
  • Slovakia Slovakia
  • Slovenia Slovenia
  • Spain Spain
  • Sweden Sweden

Law
Policies and issues
  • Josep Borrell


Foreign relations of EU member states



  • G7
  • G20
Defunct bodies
flag European Union portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

The federalisation of the European Union describes processes and proposals by which the European Union (EU) could be transformed from an informal confederation (a union of sovereign states) into a federation (a single federal state with a central government, consisting of a number of partially self-governing federated states). There is ongoing discussion about the extent to which the EU has already become a federation over the course of decades, and more importantly, to what degree it should continue to evolve into a federalist direction. As of August 2022[update], the EU has no formal plans to become a federation.

Since the 1950s, European integration has seen the development of a supranational system of governance, as its institutions move further from the concept of simple intergovernmentalism and more towards a federalised system.[citation needed] However, with the Maastricht Treaty of 1992, new intergovernmental elements have been introduced alongside the more federal systems, making it more difficult to define the EU. The European Union, which operates through a hybrid system of intergovernmentalism and supranationalism, is not officially a federation or even a confederation – though various academic observers regard it as having the characteristics of a federal system.[1]

History

The College of Europe in Belgium was founded after the 1948 Hague Congress, a pivotal moment in European federal history that also led to the creation of the European Movement

A Pan-European movement gained some momentum from the 1920s with the creation of the Paneuropean Union, based on Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi's 1923 manifesto Paneuropa, which presented the idea of a unified European State. This movement, led by Coudenhove-Kalergi and subsequently by Otto von Habsburg, is the oldest European unification movement.[2][3][4] His ideas influenced Aristide Briand, who gave a speech in favour of a European Union in the League of Nations on 8 September 1929, and in 1930, who wrote his "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union" for the Government of France.[5]

At the end of World War II, the political climate favoured unity in Western Europe, seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent.[6]

One of the first practical and successful proposals for European cooperation came in 1951 with the European Coal and Steel Community. Since then, the European Community has gradually evolved to Union in which a whole range of policy areas where its member states hope to benefit from working together.

The process of intergovernmentally pooling powers, harmonising national policies and creating and enforcing supranational institutions, is called European integration. Other than the vague aim of "ever closer union" in the 1983 Solemn Declaration on European Union, the Union (meaning its member governments) has no current policy to create a federal state.

Debate on European unity is often vague as to the boundaries of 'Europe'. The word 'Europe' is widely used as a synonym for the European Union, although most of the European continent's geographical area is not in the EU, and some of the EU is outside of Europe (e.g. French Guiana). Most of Europe's people do, however, live in the EU.

Multi-speed integration

The multi-speed Europe thesis envisions an alternative type of European integration, where the EU countries that want a more integrated EU can accelerate their own integration, whereas other countries may go at a slower pace or cease further integration altogether. Specific current examples include the Eurozone and the Schengen Area, which not all members have elected to join.

Present situation

The European Union (EU) is not legally (de jure) a federation, although various academics have argued that it contains some federal characteristics. About how various scholars approach the issue, R. Daniel Kelemen of Rutgers University said: "Unencumbered by the prejudice that the EU is sui generis and incomparable, federalism scholars now regularly treat the EU as a case in their comparative studies (Friedman-Goldstein, 2001; Filippov, Ordeshook, Shevtsova, 2004; Roden, 2005; Bednar, 2006). For the purposes of the present analysis, the EU has the necessary minimal attributes of a federal system and crucially the EU is riven with many of the same tensions that afflict federal systems."[1]

According to Joseph H. H. Weiler, "Europe has charted its own brand of constitutional federalism".[7] Jean-Michel Josselin and Alain Marciano see the European Court of Justice as being a primary force behind building a federal legal order in the Union[8] with Josselin stating that "A complete shift from a confederation to a federation would have required to straightforwardly replace the principality of the member states vis-à-vis the Union by that of the European citizens. … As a consequence, both confederate and federate features coexist in the judicial landscape."[9]

Thomas Risse and Tanja A. Börzel wrote: "The EU only lacks two significant features of a federation. First, the Member States remain the 'masters' of the treaties, i.e., they have the exclusive power to amend or change the constitutive treaties of the EU. Second, the EU lacks a real 'tax and spend' capacity, in other words, there is no fiscal federalism."[10]

Other academics have argued that the EU is unlikely to evolve into a unified federal state. Kelemen has taken this view himself in a paper co-written with Andy Tarrant, arguing that limits placed on the bureaucratic capacity of the European institutions – such as the relatively small size of the European Commission – form a barrier to the creation of a federal European state. In their words: "widespread political opposition to the creation of anything approximating a large, unified executive bureaucracy in Brussels has long-since ended hopes, for the few who harboured them, of creating a European superstate."[11] Some common points in this context are that the European budget is very small and does not finance a lot of the economic activity of the European Union; that each member state of the European Union has its own foreign relations and has its own military; that it is often the case that European Union member states decide to opt out of agreements which they oppose; and that member states still retain sovereignty over a large number of areas which might be expected to be transferred to a federal authority under a federal system. One important fact is that treaties must be agreed by all member states even if a particular treaty has support among the vast majority of the population of the European Union. Member states may also want legally binding guarantees that a particular treaty will not affect a nation's position on certain issues.

Use of the word 'federal' is itself the cause of some disagreement. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing found opposition from the United Kingdom towards including the word "federal" in the proposed European Constitution, and hence replaced the word with "Community".[12][13][14]

In November 2021, the incoming German government, the Scholz cabinet, called for European federalism in the coalition agreement and wanted to help achieve this.[15][16]

See also

  • flagEuropean Union portal
  • mapEurope portal
  • iconPolitics portal
  • Anti-Europeanism – Political term for opposition to Europe
  • Arab Union – Ideology espousing the unification of the Arab world
  • Consociationalism – Political power sharing among cultural groups
  • Democracy in Europe Movement 2025 – Pan-European political project
  • European Federalist Party – Federal pan-European political party
  • European Movement International – Lobbying for European integration
  • Euroscepticism – Body of criticism of the European Union
  • Nation state – Political term for a state that is based around a nation
  • Politics of Europe – Overview of the evolving politics of Europe
  • Pro-Europeanism – Favouring European integration
  • Pulse of Europe – Citizen's initiative for pan-Europeanism
  • Sovereignty – Supreme authority within a territory, as well as external autonomy from other states
  • Spinelli Group – Campaign for a federal Europe
  • Stand Up for Europe – Movement for democracy & federalism
  • Subsidiarity (European Union) – Principle of governance of the European Union
  • Union of European Federalists – Non-governmental organisation, campaigning for a Federal Europe
  • United States of Africa – Political concept similar to the hypothesised United States of Europe
  • United States of Europe – Speculative future European federation
  • Volt Europa – European federalist political party

References

  1. ^ a b Kelemen, R. Daniel. (2007). "Built to Last? The Durability of EU Federalism?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 January 2013. In Making History: State of the European Union, Vol. 8, edited by Sophie Meunier and Kate McNamara, Oxford University Press, p. 52.
  2. ^ Otto von Habsburg: Die Paneuropäische Idee. Eine Vision wird Wirklichkeit. Amalthea Verlag, Wien-München 1999, ISBN 3-85002-424-5
  3. ^ Vanessa Conze: Das Europa der Deutschen; Ideen von Europa in Deutschland zwischen Reichstradition und Westorientierung (1920–1970); Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag; 2005; ISBN 978-3-486-57757-0.
  4. ^ Ben Rosamond, Theories of European Integration, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000, pp. 21–22.
  5. ^ D. Weigall and P. Stirk, editors, The Origins and Development of the European Community, Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1992, pp. 11–15.
  6. ^ "The political consequences". European NAvigator. Retrieved 5 September 2007.
  7. ^ J.H.H. Weiler (2003). "Chapter 2, Federalism without Constitutionalism: Europe's Sonderweg". The federal vision: legitimacy and levels of governance in the United States and the European Union. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924500-2. Europe has charted its own brand of constitutional federalism. It works. Why fix it?
  8. ^ How the [ECJ] court made a federation of the EU Josselin (U de Rennes-1/CREM) and Marciano (U de Reims CA/CNRS).
  9. ^ Josselin, Jean Michel; Marciano, Alain (2006). "The political economy of European federalism" (PDF). Series: Public Economics and Social Choice. Centre for Research in Economics and Management, University of Rennes 1, University of Caen. p. 12. WP 2006–07; UMR CNRS 6211. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008.
  10. ^ Thomas Risse and Tanja A. Börzel, The European Union as an Emerging Federal System Archived 10 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Jean Monnet Center at NYU School of Law
  11. ^ Kelemen, R. Daniel; Tarrant, Andy (2007). "Building the Eurocracy" (PDF).
  12. ^ Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (8 July 2003). "Giscard's 'federal' ruse to protect Blair". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
  13. ^ Thomas, Sean (22 June 2003). "Gobbledegook". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 October 2008.[dead link]
  14. ^ d'Estaing, V. G. (7 July 2003). "Unknown title". The Wall Street Journal Europe. I knew the word 'federal' was ill-perceived by the British and a few others. I thought that it wasn't worth creating a negative commotion, which could prevent them supporting something that otherwise they would have supported. … So I rewrote my text, replacing intentionally the word 'federal' with the word 'communautaire', which means exactly the same thing.
  15. ^ "German government will push for a European federation". euractiv.com. 25 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  16. ^ "What's in the German coalition deal for Europe (and the UK)". Politico Europe. 24 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.

External links

  • European Integration: Westphalian Cooperation or Federalization?
  • Political speeches by Victor Hugo: Victor Hugo, My Revenge is Fraternity!, where he used the term United States of Europe.
  • Habermas, Jürgen. Towards a United States of Europe, signandsight.com
  • Analysis: What would a federal Europe look like? Archived 13 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  • Archival sources deposited by various Federal European Movements and its leaders are consultable at the Historical Archives of the European Union in Florence
  • The European Federalist Papers
  • v
  • t
  • e
Europe articles
History
Chronology
By topic
Geography
Politics
Intergovernmental
European Union
Economy
Intergovernmental
Sovereign states by
Society
Culture
Demographics
  • Outline
  • Index
  • Category
  • Portal
  • Maps
  • v
  • t
  • e
European Union articles
History
Timeline
Predecessors
Past enlargements
Geography
Bodies
Institutions of the EU
International
organisations
  • European Central Bank
Other institutions
Other EU bodies
being
international
organizations
EIB Group
  • European Investment Bank
  • European Investment Fund
  • EIB Institute
Other
Corporate
and decentralised bodies
Other bodies
Politics
Concepts
  • Eurosphere
  • Intergovernmentalism
  • Multi-speed
  • Neofunctionalism
  • Optimum currency area
  • Supranational union
  • Euroscepticism
  • Euromyths
  • Federalisation
  • Pro-Europeanism
  • Democratic legitimacy
Policies
Politics
Law
Foreign
relations
Economy
Culture
Lists
  • Category
  • Portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Agencies, decentralised independent bodies,
corporate bodies and joint undertakings
of the European Union and the Euratom
Decentralised
agencies
of the EU
Single market
CSDP
AFSJ
ESFS
BU (SRM)
  • Resolution
Executive
agencies
of the EU
Euratom
agencies
  • Euratom Supply
Decentralised
independent
bodies
of the EU
Other EU-law
corporate bodies
of the EU
Joint
undertakings
of:
the EU
  • Bio-based Industries
  • Clean Sky
  • Key Digital Technologies
  • Fuel Cells and Hydrogen
  • High-Performance Computing
  • Innovative Medicines Initiative
  • Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research
  • Shift-2-Rail
the Euratom
  • Fusion for Energy
  • Joint European Torus
Former
  • v
  • t
  • e
European organisational forms
Juridical
persons
of the EU
Primary
international law
juridical persons
of the EU
(may enter treaties)
  • European Union
  • Euratom
  • European Central Bank
  • European Investment Bank Group entities
    • European Investment Bank
    • European Investment Fund
    • EIB Institute
  • European Stability Mechanism
  • European University Institute
  • Unified Patent Court
EU secondary law
juridical persons
of the EU
  • Agencies, decentralised independent bodies,
    corporate bodies and joint undertakings
Other
existing
pan-EU
organisational
forms
Juridical
persons
(corporations
and foundations)
registered
at EU level
registered
at EU level
through
a mixed procedure
(member-state/EU)
  • European political party (Europarty)
  • European political foundation (Eurofoundation)
registered
at member-state
level
Other
partnerships
registered
at member-state
level
Proposed
pan-EU
organisational
forms
  • Societas privata Europaea (SPE)
  • Societas unius personae (SUP)
  • Fundatio Europaea (FE)
  • European mutual society (ME)
  • European Association
  • European Union portal
  • Law portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Founding treaties
Consolidated versions
Amendments
General
In force
Unratified
Changes in membership
Accession
  • 1972
  • 1979
  • 1985
  • 1994
  • 2003
  • 2005
  • 2011
Secession
  • Greenland (1984)
  • United Kingdom (“Brexit” 2020)
Unratified
Expired or terminated
  • Brussels (Western Union, 1948)
  • Modified Brussels (Western European Union, 1954)
  • Paris (European Coal and Steel Community, 1951)
Related political documents
European Union Portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Funding programmes of the European Union
EU funding oversight and accountability institutions
Funding oversight
and accountability institutions
Cohesion Policy ESIFs
Common Agricultural Policy ESIF
Common Fisheries Policy ESIF
European Green Deal funds
  • Just Transition Fund
  • Innovation Fund
  • Modernisation Fund
Common Security and Defence Policy fund
  • European Defence Fund
Enlargement Policy fund
Neighbourhood Policy and Global Strategy fund
  • Global Europe
Migration & home affairs funds
Justice & fundamental rights funds
  • Justice, Rights and Values Fund
Banking union funds
Single Resolution Mechanism funds
  • Single Resolution Fund
European Fiscal Compact funds
  • European Stability Mechanism
Next Generation EU
and other European Union funds
Next Generation EU
and other EU funds
  • v
  • t
  • e
Bilateral relations
Africa
Americas
Asia
Europe
Oceania
Former
General
  • †= Disputed state, may not be recognised as an independent state by some or all European Union members.
Multilateral relations and initiatives
Organisations
Initiatives
Administration and policies
Foreign and Security Policy
Administration
Funding
  • v
  • t
  • e
Leadership
Structure
External Action Service
Agencies
Council preparatory bodies
European Commission bodies
Policies
Other
Equipment
Decorations
  • v
  • t
  • e
Multinational
Union level
Battlegroups
Other
Provided through
TEU Article 42.3
  • v
  • t
  • e
Overseas interventions of the European Union1
Military operations
[Ground] force (EUFOR)
Naval force (EUNAVFOR)
  • Adriatic Sea (Operation Sharp Guard, 1993–1996)
  • Somalia (Operation Atalanta, 2008–present)
  • Mediterranean Sea (Operation Sophia, 2015–2020, Operation Irini, 2020-present)
Military missions
Training mission (EUTM)
Civilian missions
Police mission (EUPOL, EUPM)
Capacity building mission (EUCAP)
  • Sahel Mali (2014–present)
  • Sahel Niger (2012–present)
  • Somalia (2012–present)
Border assistance mission (EUBAM)
Rule of law mission (EULEX)
  • Kosovo (2008–present)
Monitoring mission (EUMM)
  • Aceh (2005–2006)
  • Georgia (2008–present)
Military advisory mission (EUMAM)
  • RCA (2015–2016)
Aviation security mission (EUAVSEC)
  • South Sudan (2013–2014)
Mission in support of the
security sector reform (EUSSR)
  • Guinea-Bissau (2008–2010)
Integrated rule of law mission (EUJUST)
  • Iraq (2015–2013)
  • Georgia (2004–2005)
Mission to provide advice and assistance
for security sector reform (EUSEC)
  • RD Congo (2005–2016)
Advisory mission (EUAM)
  • Ukraine (2014–present)
  • Iraq (2017–present)
Police advisory team (EUPAT)
  • FYROM (2005–2006)
Other
  • AMIS EU Supporting Action (2005–2007)
  • PAMECA (2002–present)
  • Minesweeping operation in the Strait of Hormuz, (Operation Cleansweep, 1987–1988)
  • Police and customs operation with OSCE on the Danube (1993–1996)
  • Police contingent in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994–1996)
  • Multinational Advisory Police Element in Albania (MAPE, 1997–2001)
  • Demining Assistance Mission to Croatia (WEUDAM, 1999–2001)
  • General security surveillance mission in Kosovo (1998–1999)
1: Conducted by the Western European Union prior to 2003. These missions were not named using conventional prefixes such as EUFOR, EUNAVFOR etc.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Western Union (1948–1951/1954) Flag of the Western Union.svg
  • Treaty of Dunkirk (precursor, 1947)
  • Treaty of Brussels (1948)
  • Flag
  • Exercise Verity (1949)
  • Operation Gladio
European Defence Community (plan that failed in 1954)
Western European Union (1954–2011) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg Flag of the Western European Union.svg
European Union (1992–present) Flag of Europe.svg
Period before the union had defence structures (1993–1999)
  • Maastricht Treaty (1992)
  • Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)
  • Saint-Malo declaration (1998)
European Security and Defence Policy (1999–2009)
  • Helsinki Headline Goal (1999)
  • Seville Declarations (2002)
  • European Security Strategy (2003)
  • CAPECON project (2002–2005)
Common Security and Defence Policy (2009–present)
  • Treaty of Lisbon (2007)
  • Lancaster House Treaties (2010)
  • Operations Centre (2012–2016)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Militaries of the European Union
Austrian Armed Forces


Map of Southeast Asia
Belgian Armed Forces
  • Belgian Land Component
  • Belgian Air Component
  • Belgian Naval Component
  • Belgian Medical Component
Bulgarian Armed Forces
  • Bulgarian Land Forces
  • Bulgarian Air Force
  • Bulgarian Navy
Armed Forces of Croatia
  • Croatian Army
  • Croatian Air Force
  • Croatian Navy
Cypriot National Guard
Army of the Czech Republic
  • Czech Land Forces
  • Czech Air Force
Danish Defence
Estonian Defence Forces
  • Estonian Land Forces
  • Estonian Navy
  • Estonian Air Force
Finnish Defence Forces
  • Finnish Army
  • Finnish Air Force
  • Finnish Navy
French Armed Forces
Bundeswehr
  • German Army
  • German Navy
  • German Air Force
  • Joint Support Service
  • Joint Medical Service
  • Cyber and Information Domain Service
Hellenic Armed Forces
Hungarian Defence Forces
  • Hungarian Ground Forces
  • Hungarian Air Force
Irish Defence Forces
  • Irish Army
  • Irish Air Corps
  • Irish Naval Service
  • Reserve Defence Forces
Italian Armed Forces
  • Italian Army
  • Italian Navy
  • Italian Air Force
  • Carabinieri
Latvian National Armed Forces
  • Latvian Land Forces
  • Latvian Naval Forces
  • Latvian Air Force
  • Latvian National Guard
Lithuanian Armed Forces
Luxembourg Army
Armed Forces of Malta
Netherlands Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
  • Polish Land Forces
  • Polish Air Force
  • Polish Navy
  • Polish Special Forces
  • Territorial Defence Force
Portuguese Armed Forces
  • Portuguese Army
  • Portuguese Navy
  • Portuguese Air Force
  • National Republican Guard
Romanian Armed Forces
  • Romanian Land Forces
  • Romanian Naval Forces
  • Romanian Air Force
Slovak Armed Forces
  • Slovak Ground Forces
  • Slovak Air Force
  • SK SOCOM
Slovenian Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
  • Swedish Army
  • Swedish Air Force
  • Swedish Navy
  • Home Guard
EU member states
Austria Austria
Belgium Belgium
Bulgaria Bulgaria
Croatia Croatia
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic
Denmark Denmark
Estonia Estonia
Finland Finland
France France
Germany Germany
Greece Greece
Hungary Hungary
Republic of Ireland Ireland
Italy Italy
Latvia Latvia
Lithuania Lithuania
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta
Netherlands Netherlands
Poland Poland
Portugal Portugal
Romania Romania
Slovakia Slovakia
Slovenia Slovenia
Spain Spain
Sweden Sweden
European Union portal · War portal