Foreign relations of Poland

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  • Andrzej Duda (I)

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The Republic of Poland is a Central European country and member of the European Union and NATO, among others. Poland wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs. The foreign policy of Poland is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law.

The Polish economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Since the collapse of communism and its re-establishment as a democratic nation, Poland has extended its responsibilities and position in European and Western affairs, supporting and establishing friendly foreign relations with both the West and with numerous European countries.

History

Foreign policy topics are covered in the history articles:

  • History of Poland
    • History of Poland in the Early Modern era (1569–1795)
    • History of Poland (1795–1918), when it was split three ways between Germany, Russia and Austria and had no foreign policy
    • History of Poland (1918–1939)
    • History of Poland (1939–1945)
    • History of Poland (1945–1989)
    • History of Poland (1989–present)

Integration with the West and Europe

Polish prime minister Mateusz Morawiecki (left) at a Visegrád Group meeting in Budapest in 2021 with fellow member countries.

After regaining independence in 1989, Poland has forged ahead on its economic reintegration with the Western world.[1] Poland also has been an active nation in advocating European integration.

In 1994, Poland became an associate member of the European Union (EU) and its defensive arm, the Western European Union (WEU). In 1996, Poland achieved full OECD membership and submitted preliminary documentation for full EU membership.

Poland formally joined the European Union in May 2004, along with the other members of the Visegrád group.

NATO membership

Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz told a 2014 audience at the Wilson Center that Poland sought to join NATO as early as 1992.[2]

In 1997, Poland was invited in the first wave of NATO enlargement at the July 1997 NATO Madrid summit. In March 1999, Poland became a full member of NATO. Poland promoted its NATO candidacy through energetic participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and through intensified individual dialogue with NATO.

Poland was a part of the multinational force in Iraq.

Bilateral relations

Countries which Poland maintains diplomatic relations with:

List of countries which Poland established diplomatic relations with:[3]

# Country Date
1  France 2 April 1919[4]
2  United States 2 May 1919[5]
3   Switzerland 8 May 1919[6]
4  Greece 24 May 1919[7]
5  Romania 22 June 1919[8]
6  United Kingdom 15 July 1919[9]
  Holy See 19 July 1919[10]
7  Belgium 28 July 1919[10]
8  Sweden 2 August 1919[11]
9  Italy 3 August 1919[10]
10  Norway 25 August 1919[12]
11  Denmark 8 September 1919[13]
12  Spain 17 September 1919[14]
13  Netherlands 13 September 1919[15]
14  Serbia 19 September 1919[16]
15  Finland 7 February 1920[17]
16  Germany 9 March 1920[14]
17  Czech Republic 23 March 1920[18]
18  Brazil 27 May 1920[19]
19  Uruguay 22 July 1920[20]
20  Paraguay 12 August 1920[21][20]
21  Japan 12 August 1920[22]
22  Chile 7 December 1920[23]
23  Latvia 27 January 1921[24]
24  Luxembourg 18 April 1921[25]
25  Russia 27 April 1921[26]
26  Estonia 4 May 1921[27]
27  Austria 6 September 1921[20]
28  Bulgaria 6 September 1921[28]
29  Hungary 17 November 1921[29]
30  Portugal 13 May 1922[30]
31  Argentina 19 July 1922[20]
32  Turkey 23 July 1923[31]
33  Peru 6 September 1923[32]
34  Iran 1 May 1925[33][34]
35  Egypt 1926[35]
36  Afghanistan 3 November 1927[36]
37  Mexico 26 February 1928[37]
38  Iraq 22 December 1932[38]
39  Cuba 1 January 1933[39]
40  Colombia 18 November 1933[40]
41  Costa Rica 18 November 1933[41]
42  Dominican Republic 18 November 1933[41]
43  El Salvador 18 November 1933[41]
44  Guatemala 18 November 1933[41]
45  Haiti 18 November 1933[41]
46  Honduras 18 November 1933[41]
47  Nicaragua 18 November 1933[41]
48  Panama 18 November 1933[41]
49  Venezuela 18 November 1933[41]
50  Ecuador 5 August 1935
51  Bolivia 3 September 1935[42]
52  Albania 7 April 1937[43]
53  Lithuania 19 March 1938[44]
54  Canada 9 February 1942[45]
55  Ethiopia 1 September 1943[46]
56  Lebanon 1 August 1944[47]
57  Syria 18 September 1945
58  Iceland 14 January 1946
59  Israel 19 May 1948
60  North Korea 16 October 1948[48]
61  China 7 October 1949[49]
62  Vietnam 4 February 1950[50]
63  Mongolia 14 April 1950[51]
64  India 30 March 1954[52]
65  Indonesia 19 September 1955[53]
66  Myanmar 9 November 1955
67  Sudan 4 April 1956
68  Cambodia 24 April 1956[54]
69  Sri Lanka 18 April 1957[55]
70  Yemen 21 December 1957[56]
71  Guinea 29 June 1959[57]
72  Morocco 7 July 1959[58]
73  Tunisia 15 November 1959[59]
74    Nepal 24 November 1959[60]
75  Ghana 31 December 1959[61]
76  Cyprus 15 January 1961[62]
77  Democratic Republic of Congo 12 February 1961
78  Mali 12 May 1961
79  Tanzania 14 January 1962[63]
80  Algeria 2 May 1962
81  Nigeria 30 May 1962[64]
82  Benin 14 June 1962
83  Senegal 18 June 1962
84  Somalia 10 July 1962[65]
85  Burundi 8 August 1962[66]
86  Laos 8 September 1962
87  Sierra Leone 9 November 1962
88  Pakistan 17 December 1962[67]
89  Togo 26 December 1962
90  Uganda 8 April 1963
91  Kuwait 17 May 1963
92  Libya 2 December 1963[68]
93  Kenya 13 December 1963[69]
94  Jordan 20 February 1964[70]
95  Rwanda 10 July 1965[71]
96  Mauritania 3 December 1965[72]
97  Zambia 30 June 1966
98  Burkina Faso 13 June 1968
99  Singapore 12 April 1969[73]
100  Central African Republic 15 January 1970[74]
101  Malaysia 21 June 1971[75]
102  Niger 30 June 1971
103  Malta 23 October 1971[76]
104  Bangladesh 12 January 1972[77]
105  Australia 20 February 1972[78]
106  Cameroon 14 March 1972[79]
107  Guyana 10 July 1972[80]
108  Thailand 14 November 1972[81]
109  Republic of Congo 19 December 1972[82]
110  New Zealand 28 February 1973
111  Liberia 30 May 1973[83]
112  Philippines 22 September 1973[84]
113  Guinea-Bissau 3 October 1973[85]
114  Madagascar 28 November 1973
115  Cote d'Ivoire 9 June 1974
116  Jamaica 4 November 1974
117  Gambia 21 January 1975[86]
118  Mozambique 25 June 1975[87]
119  Angola 25 November 1975
120  Cape Verde 12 February 1976[88]
121  Ireland 30 September 1976[89]
122  Gabon 16 October 1976[90]
123  Comoros 6 June 1977[91]
124  Papua New Guinea 10 February 1978[92]
125  Sao Tome and Principe 20 November 1978[93]
126  Botswana 22 November 1978[94]
127  Lesotho 20 December 1978[95]
128  Chad 5 January 1979
129  Seychelles 14 February 1979
130  Mauritius 30 April 1979
131  Equatorial Guinea 29 May 1979[96]
132  Djibouti 24 February 1980[97]
133  Grenada 2 June 1980[98]
134  Zimbabwe 18 February 1981
135  Maldives 1 October 1984[94]
136  Vanuatu 15 November 1986[99]
 Palestine 11 April 1989
137  United Arab Emirates 4 September 1989
138  Qatar 16 October 1989
139  South Korea 1 November 1989[100]
140  Oman 24 January 1990[101]
141  Namibia 23 March 1990
142  Eswatini 10 May 1990[94]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 9 July 1990
143  Bahrain 22 April 1991
144  Marshall Islands 17 December 1991[94]
145  South Africa 18 December 1991[102]
146  Ukraine 4 January 1992[103]
147  Kyrgyzstan 10 February 1992
148  Tajikistan 11 February 1992[104]
149  Azerbaijan 21 February 1992[105]
150  Armenia 26 February 1992[106]
151  Belarus 2 March 1992[107]
152  Uzbekistan 19 March 1992[108]
153  Kazakhstan 6 April 1992
154  Slovenia 10 April 1992[109]
155  Croatia 11 April 1992
156  Georgia 28 April 1992[110]
157  Malawi 10 July 1992[111]
158  Moldova 14 July 1992[112]
159  Liechtenstein 5 September 1992
160  Turkmenistan 29 September 1992
161  Slovakia 1 January 1993[113]
162  Suriname 24 May 1993[114]
163  Eritrea 15 July 1993
164  North Macedonia 30 December 1993
165  San Marino 14 November 1994[115]
166  Belize 2 May 1995[94]
167  Saudi Arabia 3 May 1995[116]
168  Bosnia and Herzegovina 22 December 1995[117]
169  Brunei 20 March 1996[94]
170  Andorra 15 May 1996
171  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16 May 1996[94]
172  Barbados 13 September 1996[94]
173  Trinidad and Tobago 13 August 1998[94]
174  Saint Lucia 24 May 2000[94]
175  Timor Leste 18 November 2002[118]
176  Bahamas 19 November 2003[119]
177  Antigua and Barbuda 13 September 2005[120]
178  Montenegro 14 August 2006[121]
179  Monaco 27 September 2007[122]
180  Dominica 4 June 2009[94]
181  Saint Kitts and Nevis 23 June 2009[94]
182  Palau 27 January 2012[94]
183  Solomon Islands 6 March 2012[94]
184  Samoa 8 March 2012[94]
185  Bhutan 29 November 2012[94]
186  South Sudan 31 January 2013[123]
187  Fiji 11 July 2014[94]
188  Nauru 24 November 2014[124]
189  Kiribati 2 March 2015[125]
190  Federated States of Micronesia 6 March 2015[126]
191  Tuvalu 4 May 2015[127]
192  Tonga 29 August 2016[128]

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Poland relations
  • Algeria has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola
  • Angola has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Luanda.
 Chad
  • Chad is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Poland is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Tunis, Tunisia.
 Egypt See Egypt–Poland relations
  • Egypt has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Kenya 13 December 1963 See Kenya–Poland relations
  • Kenya is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Poland has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Libya
  • Libya has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Libya from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
 Madagascar
  • Madagascar is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Poland is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.
 Morocco
  • Morocco has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Rabat.
 Mozambique 25 June 1975
  • Mozambique is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Mozambique from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa and maintains an honorary consulate in Maputo.
 Namibia 21 March 1990
  • Namibia is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Namibia from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
 Nigeria See Nigeria–Poland relations
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Abuja.
 Senegal
  • Poland has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in Warsaw.
 South Africa 1988 See Poland–South Africa relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Tanzania 1961 See Poland–Tanzania relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Tunisia
  • Poland has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Uganda
  • Poland is accredited to Uganda from its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya and maintains an honorary consulate in Kampala.
  • Uganda is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1920 See Argentina–Poland relations
  • Argentina has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Buenos Aires.[129]
  • List of Treaties ruling the relations Argentina and Poland (Argentine Foreign Ministry, in Spanish)
 Belize 2 May 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 2, 1995.[130]

 Bolivia
  • Bolivia is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Bolivia from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
 Brazil 27 May 1920 See Brazil–Poland relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Warsaw.[131]
  • Poland has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in Curitiba.[132]
 Canada 1935 See Canada–Poland relations
  • The Canada-Poland diplomatic relationship goes back from the first bilateral agreement, a Convention on Merchant Shipping, which was signed in 1935.
  • Canada has an embassy in Warsaw.[133]
  • Poland has an embassy in Ottawa and 3 Consulates-General (in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver).
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and OECD.[134]
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Poland
 Chile 1920 See Chile–Poland relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Colombia 1931 See Colombia–Poland relations
  • Colombia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Bogotá.[135]
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Cuba 1933 See Cuba–Poland relations
  • Cuba has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Havana.
 Ecuador
  • Ecuador is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Ecuador from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in Panama City, Panama.
 Guyana 1972

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1972.[136]

  • Guyana is accredited to Poland from its high commission in London, United Kingdom.
  • Poland is accredited to Guyana from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.
 Haiti
  • Haiti is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Bogotá, Colombia.
 Mexico 26 February 1928 See Mexico–Poland relations
  • Mexico has an embassy in Warsaw.[137]
  • Poland has an embassy in Mexico City.[138]
  • History of diplomatic relations between Mexico and Poland (Spanish)
  • Both nations are members of the OECD.
 Panama
  • Panama has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Panama City.
 Paraguay
  • Paraguay is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Paraguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
 Peru 1923 See Peru–Poland relations
  • Peru has an embassy in Warsaw.[139]
  • Poland has an embassy in Lima.[140]
 United States See Poland–United States relations

A tighter security alliance with the United States was announced in the middle of the Georgian crisis as an agreement between the two countries was reached to allow the US to install and operate an interceptor missile defense shield, a move which Russia sees explicitly targeting it and which it stated made Poland "a legit military target".[141] A high-ranking Russian military official said: "Poland in deploying [the US system] opens itself to a nuclear strike".[142]

  • Poland has an embassy in Washington, D.C. and consulates-general in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York.[143]
  • United States has an embassy in Warsaw, a consulate-general in Kraków, and a consular agency in Poznań.[144]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and the OECD.
 Uruguay 22 July 1920 See Poland–Uruguay relations
  • Poland is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Venezuela 1933 See Poland–Venezuela relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Warsaw.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan–Poland relations
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Afghanistan from its embassy in New Delhi, India.
 Armenia 1992-2-26[145] See Armenia–Poland relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Warsaw, and an honorary consulate in Łódź.[146]
  • Poland has an embassy in Yerevan.[147]
  • Poland has recognized the Armenian genocide in 2005.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  • See also Armenians in Poland
 Azerbaijan 1992-02-21[148] See Azerbaijan–Poland relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  • See also Poles in Azerbaijan
 Bangladesh See Bangladesh–Poland relations
  • Bangladesh has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Bangladesh from its embassy in New Delhi, India.
 China 1919 See China–Poland relations
Poland's President Andrzej Duda and Chinese President Xi Jinping exchanging signed declarations on strategic partnership, 2016.
  • Relations between Poland and the People's Republic of China began on 5 October 1949.
  • China has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Shanghai.
 Georgia 1992-04-28 See Georgia–Poland relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 India See India–Poland relations

Historically, relations have generally been close and friendly, characterized by understanding and cooperation on international front.[149]

  • India has an embassy in Warsaw.[150]
  • Poland has an embassy in New Delhi.[151]
 Indonesia See Indonesia–Poland relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran See Iran–Poland relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tehran.
 Iraq See Iraq–Poland relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Baghdad.
 Israel 27 February 1990 See Israel–Poland relations

Poland broke off relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967, following most other countries of the Soviet Union controlled Eastern Bloc. Poland was the first Eastern bloc country to recognize Israel again in 1986. Full diplomatic relations have been reestablished in 1990, after the communist People's Republic of Poland was transformed into modern, democratic Poland. Government relations between Poland and Israel are steadily improving, resulting in the mutual visits of presidents and the ministers of foreign affairs.[152][153]

  • Israel has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
  • See also History of the Jews in Poland
 Japan See Japan–Poland relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Warsaw, and an honorary consulate in Kraków.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tokyo, and 2 honorary consulates (in Kobe and Hiroshima).[154]
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Kazakhstan 6 April 1992 See Kazakhstan–Poland relations

Poland opened its embassy in Nur-Sultan in March 1994. Kazakhstan's embassy to Poland was opened in October 2000.[155]

  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
 Kuwait
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Kuwait City.
 Lebanon
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Beirut.
 Malaysia See Malaysia–Poland relations

Malaysia has an embassy in Warsaw,[156] and Poland has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur and a consulate in Kuching.[157][158]

 Mongolia
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar.
 North Korea 1948 October[159] See Poland–North Korea relations
  • North Korea has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Pyongyang.
 Pakistan 17 December 1962 See Pakistan–Poland relations
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Islamabad.
 Palestine 1988 See Palestine–Poland relations
  • Palestine has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has a representative office in Ramallah.
 Philippines See Philippines–Poland relations
  • Philippines has an embassy in Warsaw and 2 honorary consulates (in Poznań and Wrocław).
  • Poland has an embassy in Manila and 3 honorary consulates (in Cebu City, Davao City and San Fernando).[160]
 Qatar
  • Poland has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Saudi Arabia See Poland–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Singapore 1969[161]
  • Poland has an embassy in Singapore.[161]
  • Singapore has a non-resident ambassador based in Singapore accredited to Poland and has an honorary consulate-general in Warsaw.[161]
 South Korea 1 November 1989[162] See Poland–South Korea relations
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
  • Poland and South Korea have a good relations.
    • Polish embassy in Seoul.[163]
    • South Korean embassy in Warsaw.[164]
  • Poland and South Korea have made an agreement of the Working Holiday Program.
  • See also: Poland–South Korea relations
 Taiwan See Poland–Taiwan relations
 Thailand
  • Poland has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Turkey See Poland–Turkey relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO, OECD and the Council of Europe.
 United Arab Emirates See Poland–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Uzbekistan
  • Poland has an embassy in Tashkent.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Vietnam See Poland–Vietnam relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Warsaw.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania See Albania–Poland relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Albania is an EU candidate and Poland is an EU member.
 Andorra 1996-5-15
  • Andorra is accredited to Poland from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Andorra la Vella, Andorra.
  • Poland is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
 Austria 1921 See Austria–Poland relations

Austria was one of the three partitioners of Poland, along with Prussia/Germany and Russia.

  • Austria has an embassy in Warsaw and a consulate-general in Kraków and 3 honorary consulates (in Wrocław, Gdańsk, and Łódź).[165]
  • Poland has an embassy in Vienna and 4 honorary consulates (in Graz, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt and Salzburg).[166]
  • Austrian Foreign Ministry: list of bilateral treaties with Poland (in German only)
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Belarus 1992-03-02[167] See Belarus–Poland relations
  • Both countries share a common border of 416 kilometres (258 miles).[168]
  • Poland was one of the first countries to recognise Belarusian independence.[167]
  • Belarus has an embassy in Warsaw and a consulate-general in Gdańsk and Białystok, and a consulate in Biała Podlaska.[169]
  • Poland has an embassy in Minsk and consulates-general in Brest and Hrodna.[170]
  • The authoritarian and anti-Western political course taken by the country of neighboring Belarus presents a huge problem for Polish foreign policy.[citation needed]
 Belgium 1919-3[171]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Bulgaria 1920s See Bulgaria–Poland relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Warsaw and 5 honorary consulates (in Białystok, Częstochowa, Gdańsk, Kraków and Wrocław).[172]
  • Poland has an embassy in Sofia,[173] and an honorary consulate in Nesebar.[174]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Croatia 1992-04-11 See Croatia–Poland relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Warsaw.[175]
  • Poland has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Poland Archived 2013-02-17 at archive.today
 Cyprus 1960s See Cyprus–Poland relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Warsaw and 2 honorary consulates (in Gdynia and Szczecin).
  • Poland has an embassy in Nicosia and an honorary consulate general in Limassol.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.

[176]

 Czech Republic 1991-10-6[177] See Czech Republic–Poland relations
  • Both countries share a common border of 790 kilometres (490 miles).[168]
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Warsaw and a consulate-general in Katowice.
  • Poland has an embassy in Prague and a consulate-general in Ostrava.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, NATO and the Visegrád Group.
 Denmark See Denmark–Poland relations
  • Denmark and Poland share a maritime border in the Baltic Sea.
  • Denmark has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Copenhagen.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, NATO and the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
 Estonia 1991-09 See Estonia–Poland relations
  • Poland recognised Estonia's independence on December 31, 1920 and re-recognised it on August 26, 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Warsaw and 3 honorary consulates (in Szczecin, Poznań and Kraków).[178]
  • Poland has an embassy in Tallinn.[179]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, of NATO and of the European Union.
  • Estonia Ministry of Foreign affairs about relations with Poland
 Finland 1919-03-08 See Finland–Poland relations
  • Finland has an embassy in Warsaw and an honorary consulate in Gdynia.
  • Poland has an embassy in Helsinki.[180]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States and of the European Union.
  • Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Poland
 France 1919-2-24[181] See France–Poland relations

Polish-French relations date several centuries, although they became really relevant only with times of French Revolution and reign of Napoleon I. Poles have been allies of Napoleon; large Polish community settled in France in the 19th century, and Poles and French were also allies during the interwar period. The official relations, having cooled down during the Cold War, have improved since the fall of communism. Currently both countries are part of the European Union and NATO.

  • France has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Paris and a consulate-general in Lyon.
 Germany See Germany–Poland relations

After the creation of modern Germany in 1871, Germany was one of the three partitioners of Poland, along with Austria and Russia.

The joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland of 1939 started World War II, and then until 1945, Poland was occupied by Germany and subjected to crimes against its popualtion.

During the Cold War, communist Poland had good relations with East Germany, but had strained relations with West Germany. After the fall of communism, Poland and the reunited Germany have had a mostly positive but occasionally strained relationship due to some political issues. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Germany has been a proponent of Poland's participation in NATO and the European Union.

  • Both countries share a common border of 467 kilometres (290 miles).[168]
  • Germany has an embassy in Warsaw and consulates-general in Gdańsk, Kraków, Opole and Wrocław.
  • Poland has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Cologne, Hamburg and Munich.
 Greece See Greece–Poland relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  Holy See 1919 See Holy See–Poland relations
  • Holy see has an apostolic nunciature in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy to the Holy See based in Rome.
 Hungary See Hungary–Poland relations

Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages. For a long time, they enjoy traditional close friendship.

  • Hungary has an embassy in Warsaw, a consulate-general in Kraków, a vice-consulate in Wrocław, and 4 honorary consulates (in Łódź, Poznań, Bydgoszcz and Szczecin).[182]
  • Poland has an embassy in Budapest, and 3 honorary consulates (in Keszthely, Szeged and Szentendre).[183]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, NATO and the Visegrád Group.
 Iceland January 1946 See Iceland–Poland relations
  • Iceland is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.[184]
  • Poland has an embassy in Reykjavík.[185]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland 1976-9-30[186] See Ireland–Poland relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in Warsaw,[187] and an honorary consulate in Poznań.[188]
  • Poland has an embassy in Dublin,[189] and 2 honorary consulates (in Limerick and Kilkenny).[190]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Italy 1919-2-27[191] See Italy–Poland relations
  • Northern Italy and parts of Poland were part of the Holy Roman Empire and the Austrian Empire.
  • Italy has an embassy in Warsaw, and 5 honorary consulates (in Gdynia, Kraków, Poznań, Szczecin and Wrocław).[192]
  • Poland has an embassy in Rome, a consulate general in Milan, and 8 honorary consulates (in Ancona, Bologna, Genoa, Naples, Palermo, Trento, Turin, Venice).[193]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Latvia 1991-08-30 See Latvia–Poland relations
  • Poland recognised Latvia's independence on January 27, 1921.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Warsaw and 3 honorary consulates (in Katowice, Gdańsk and Łódź).[194]
  • Poland has an embassy in Riga.[195]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO, the European Union and the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
  • There are around 57,000 Poles living in Latvia (See Poles in Latvia).
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Poland
 Lithuania 1991-9-5[196] See Lithuania–Poland relations

Poland and Lithuania formed a close alliance and political union since 1385, which was eventually transformed into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the greatest historic powers of Central and Eastern Europe.

The fall of communism in the years of 1989-1991 led to a formal reestablishment of relations by the Polish and Lithuanian states. Poland was highly supportive of the Lithuanian independence, and became one of the first countries to recognize independent Lithuania.[197] Despite that, there was a relative crisis in the early 1990s,[198] due to Lithuanian mistreatment of Polish minority, and Lithuanian suspicious that Poland would want to put Lithuania under its sphere of influence.[197] After a few years, as the situation normalized, Polish-Lithuanian relations have been steadily improving over the past two decades, with both countries joining the NATO and European Union.

  • Lithuania has an embassy in Warsaw and consulate general in Sejny.
  • Poland has an embassy in Vilnius and an honorary consulate in Klaipėda.
  • There are around 250,000 Poles living in Lithuania and around 25,000 ethnic Lithuanians living in Poland. Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States. Both countries share a common border of 103 kilometres (64 miles).[168]
 Luxembourg 1945-7-14[199]
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Malta
  • Malta has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Valletta.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Moldova 1991-8-27[200] See Moldova–Poland relations
  • Moldova has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Chișinău.
 Monaco 1990[201]
  • Monaco is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany and maintains an honorary consulate in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Montenegro
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Montenegro is an EU candidate and Poland is an EU member.
 Netherlands See Netherlands–Poland relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 North Macedonia
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Skopje.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Norway See Norway–Poland relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
  • There are over 100,000 Poles in Norway, forming the largest minority group of the country (as of 2019).
 Portugal 11 July 1974 See Poland–Portugal relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Romania 1919-02-09 See Poland–Romania relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Bucharest.[202]
  • Romania has an embassy in Warsaw and 3 honorary consulates (in Gdynia, Katowice and Poznań).[203]
  • Both are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
  • See also Polish–Romanian alliance
 Russia See Poland–Russia relations

Russia was one of the three partitioners of Poland, along with Austria and Prussia/Germany.

The joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland of 1939 started World War II.

In recent years, relations with Russia have worsened considerably. During the Russo-Georgian War Poland stated its support for Georgia and condemned Russia's actions. The Polish believed the war was carried out by the Russians in an attempt to reestablish and reassert its dominance over its former republics. Since 2009, however, relations with Russia somewhat improved, despite the Smolensk air disaster where the former Polish president died on what is still considered a controversial event. After the annexation of Crimea by Russia the relations deteriorated again, as Poland strongly condemned Russian actions against Ukraine.

  • Poland has an embassy in Moscow and consulates-general in Irkutsk, Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg.
  • Russia has an embassy in Warsaw and consulates-general in Gdańsk, Kraków and Poznań.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
 Serbia 1919 See Poland–Serbia relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland is an EU member and Serbia is an EU candidate.
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Poland Archived 2020-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
 Slovakia 1993 See Poland–Slovakia relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Bratislava.[204]
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Warsaw and a consulate-general in Kraków.[205]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO, the European Union and the Visegrád Group.
  • Both countries share 539 kilometres (335 miles) of common borders.[168]
 Slovenia 1992-4-10[206]
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Spain 1919-5-19[207] See Poland–Spain relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona.
  • Spain has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Sweden 1919-6-3[207] See Poland–Sweden relations

Poland and Sweden formed the Polish–Swedish union in the late 16th century.

  • Poland and Sweden share a maritime border in the Baltic Sea.
  • Poland has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
  • There are over 90,000 Poles in Sweden, forming one of the largest minority groups of the country (as of 2019).
  Switzerland
  • Poland has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Poland
 Ukraine 1992-1-4[208] See Poland–Ukraine relations

Both countries share a border of about 529 kilometres (329 miles).[168] Poland's acceptance of the Schengen Agreement created problems with the Ukrainian border traffic. On July 1, 2009 an agreement on local border traffic between the two country's came into effect. This agreement enables Ukrainian citizens living in border regions to cross the Polish frontier according to a liberalized procedure.[209] The Orange Revolution in Ukraine evoked a wide and authentic support within the Polish society.[citation needed]

  • Poland has an embassy in Kyiv and consulates-general in Kharkiv, Lviv, Lutsk, Odessa and Vinnytsia
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Warsaw and consulates-general in Gdańsk, Kraków, Lublin and Opole.
 United Kingdom 1919-2-25[210] See Poland–United Kingdom relations

During the Cold War Poland retained a largely negative view of Britain as a sluggish ally of Poland during World War II, later acceptance of neglecting Poland in the international arena and placing it in communist influences. In communist times the UK was a part of the NATO block, so consequently it was considered by the communists as natural enemy of the communist bloc. British efforts meanwhile were focussed at trying to break Poland off from the Warsaw Pact and encouraging reforms in the country. In the 1990s and 2000s democratic Poland has maintained close relations with Britain; both in defence matters and within the EU; Britain being one of only a few countries allowing equal rights to Polish workers upon their accession in 2004.[211]

  • Poland has an embassy in London and consulates-general in Belfast, Edinburgh and Manchester.[212]
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • According to official estimates there were around 900,000 Poles living in the UK in December 2019.[213]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia February 1972 See Australia–Poland relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Warsaw.[214]
  • Poland has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.[215]
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Micronesia 12 February 2019

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 February 2019.[216]

  • Poland is accredited to Micronesia from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • Micronesia currently does not have an accredited ambassador to Poland.
 New Zealand 1 March 1973 See New Zealand–Poland relations
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Warsaw.[217]
  • Poland has an embassy in Wellington.[218]
  • Both countries are full members of the OECD.
 Solomon Islands 6 March 2012

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 March 2012.[219]

  • Poland is accredited to the Solomon Islands from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • Solomon Islands are accredited to Poland from its embassy Brussels, Belgium.

See also

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Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA document: "World Factbook".

Further reading

  • Biskupski, M. B. The History of Poland. Greenwood, 2000. 264 pp. online edition
  • The Cambridge History of Poland, 2 vols., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941 (1697–1935), 1950 (to 1696). New York: Octagon Books, 1971 online edition vol 1 to 1696, old fashioned but highly detailed
  • Davies, Norman. God's Playground. A History of Poland. Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982 / ISBN 0-19-925340-4.
  • Davies, Norman. Heart of Europe: A Short History of Poland. Oxford University Press, 1984. 511 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Fedorowicz, Krzysztof (July 2007). "National Identity and National Interest in Polish Eastern Policy, 1989-2004". Nationalities Papers. 35 (3): 537–553. doi:10.1080/00905990701368761. S2CID 154831664.
  • Frucht, Richard. Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism Garland Pub., 2000 online edition
  • Gerson Louis L. Woodrow Wilson and the Rebirth of Poland 1914-1920 (1972)
  • Hetherington, Peter. Unvanquished: Joseph Pilsudski, Resurrected Poland, and the Struggle for Eastern Europe (2012) 752pp excerpt and text search
  • Kenney, Padraic. "After the Blank Spots Are Filled: Recent Perspectives on Modern Poland," Journal of Modern History (2007) 79#1 pp 134–61, in JSTOR historiography
  • Klatt, Malgorzata. "Poland and its Eastern neighbours: Foreign policy principles." Journal of Contemporary European Research 7.1 (2011): 61-76. online
  • Korbel, Josef. Poland Between East and West: Soviet and German Diplomacy toward Poland, 1919–1933 (Princeton University Press, 1963)
  • Kuźniar, R. ed. Poland's Security Policy 1989-2000 (Warsaw: Scholar Publishing House, 2001).
  • Lerski, George J. Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood, 1996. 750 pp. online
  • Leslie, R. F. et al. The History of Poland since 1863. Cambridge U. Press, 1980. 494 pp. excerpt[dead link]
  • Lukowski, Jerzy and Zawadzki, Hubert. A Concise History of Poland. (2nd ed. Cambridge U. Press, 2006). 408pp. excerpts and search
  • Magocsi, Paul Robert t al. A History of East Central Europe (1974).
  • Pogonowski, Iwo Cyprian. Poland: A Historical Atlas. Hippocrene, 1987. 321 pp.
  • Prazmowska, Anita J. A History of Poland (2004\)
  • Sanford, George. Historical Dictionary of Poland. Scarecrow Press, 2003. 291 pp.
  • Snyder, Timothy. The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999 (2003).
  • Wróbel, Piotr. Historical Dictionary of Poland, 1945-1996. Greenwood, 1998. 397 pp.
  • Zięba, Ryszard. Poland's Foreign and Security Policy Springer, 2020) online
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