Outline of political science

Overview of and topical guide to political science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science:

Part of the Politics series
Politics
Primary topics
Political systems
  • Anarchy
  • City-state
  • Democracy
  • Dictatorship
  • Directory
  • Federacy
  • Feudalism
  • Meritocracy
  • Monarchy
  • Parliamentary
  • Presidential
  • Republic
  • Semi-parliamentary
  • Semi-presidential
  • Theocracy
Academic disciplines
  • Political science (political scientists)
  • International relations (theory)
  • Comparative politics
  • Political analysis
  • Political theory
  • Policy studies
  • Political psychology
  • Political sociology
Public administration
  • Bureaucracy (street-level)
  • Technocracy
  • Adhocracy
Policy
  • Public policy (doctrine)
  • Domestic policy
  • Foreign policy
  • Civil society
  • Public interest
Branches of government
  • Separation of powers
  • Legislature
  • Executive
  • Judiciary
  • Election commission
Subseries
  • Electoral systems
  • Elections
    • voting
  • Unitarism
  • Federalism
  • Government
  • Ideology
  • Political campaigning
  • Political parties
icon Politics portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

Politics – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions. Politics is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religious segments of society.

Political science – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior.

Fields of study of political science

  • Comparative politics
  • Development studies
  • Geopolitics and political geography
    • Area studies
    • Globalization studies
  • Gender and politics
  • Institutional theory
    • New institutionalism
  • International relations
    • Security studies
      • Critical security studies
      • Copenhagen School
      • Paris school
      • Welsh school
  • Nationalism studies
    • Banal nationalism
    • Diaspora politics
    • Irredentism
    • Nationalism and gender
    • Nationalist historiography
    • Postnationalism
    • Revanchism
  • Political behavior
    • Political activism
      • Political movement
  • Political economy
  • Political fiction
    • Political satire
  • Political research methodology
  • Political sociology
  • Political theory and philosophy
    • Political spectrum
  • Positive political theory
    • Game theory
  • Psephology – study of elections
  • Policy analysis and Policy studies
    • Foreign policy analysis
    • Public administration and local government studies
    • Public law
  • Strategic studies

Related disciplines

  • Economics
    • Political economy
  • History
    • Political history
  • Jurisprudence
    • Constitutional law
    • International legal theory
    • Political jurisprudence
  • Philosophy
    • Ethics
    • Political philosophy
  • Psychology
    • Political psychology
  • Social science
    • Anthropology
      • Political anthropology
    • Sociology
      • Political sociology

Political theory

Decision-making

Voting is a key form of decision-making in politics. A female journalist displays her inked finger after casting her vote in Afghanistan's western Herat province.

Election

  • Electoral systems
    • Plurality voting allows each voter to vote for a single candidate, with the candidate with most votes being the winner. It is often combined with single-member districts, resulting in a majoritarian democracy.
      • Cardinal voting systems
        • Approval voting
        • Satisfaction approval voting
        • Majority judgment
        • STAR voting
      • First-past-the-post voting
      • Single non-transferable vote
      • Limited voting
      • Plurality-at-large voting
      • General ticket
    • Proportional representation ensures that proportions of representation allocated in the elected body reflect their proportions of support among the electorate.[2] Often combined with multi-member districts to produce consensus democracy.
      • Party-list proportional representation
    • Mixed electoral systems
      • Mixed-member proportional representation
      • Parallel voting
      • Scorporo
      • Majority bonus system
      • Alternative vote plus
      • Dual-member proportional representation
      • Rural-urban proportional representation
  • Suffrage
  • Voting
  • Game theory
  • Political campaign
  • Political communications
  • Political qualifications

Order of succession

  • Primogeniture

Sortition

  • Citizens' assembly

Political institutions

Institutions are often the framework within which politics happens. Pictured is the Supreme Court of the United States.

Branches of government

The separation of powers is typically set in the constitution or basic law in order to achieve checks and balances within government. The typical model has three branches, and is referred to as the trias politica.

  • Legislature, deliberates and passes laws.
    • Unicameralism
    • Bicameralism
      • Upper house
      • Lower house
    • Tricameralism
    • Tetracameralism
    • Multicameralism
  • Executive, executes laws.
    • Head of state, formal, often symbolic, leader of state. Sometimes has veto power over proposed legislation.
      • Monarch
      • Supreme leader
      • President
    • Head of government, the person(s) in charge of day-to-day affairs of the state. Usually heads a cabinet, a Council of Ministers or a Council of State.
      • Chancellor
      • Chief executive
      • Chief minister
      • First minister
      • Premier
      • Prime minister
  • Judiciary, often involved in politics through judicial review.
    • Supreme court
    • Constitutional court
Political parties, and their number, are important aspects of representative systems. The number of political parties in the Hellenic Parliament of Greece has varied across time.

Political parties

  • Party systems
    • Nonpartisan democracy
    • One-party state
    • Dominant-party system
    • Two-party system
    • Multi-party system
  • Party coalition governments
    • Hung parliament
    • Confidence and supply
    • Minority government
    • Rainbow coalition
    • Grand coalition
    • National unity government
    • Majority government

Political behavior

Theories of political behaviour

  • Political culture
    • Civic political culture
    • Parochial political culture
    • Patrimonialism, a political culture which sees no difference between personal and political power.
      • Neopatrimonialism
      • Prebendalism
  • Peace and conflict studies
    • Aggressionism
    • Greed versus grievance
  • Political psychology
    • Impressionable years hypothesis
    • Postmaterialism
    • Right-Wing Authoritarianism
    • Social Dominance Orientation
    • System Justification Theory

Political strategy

  • Accelerationism
  • Political campaigning
    • Campaign advertising
    • Campaign finance
    • Campaign management tools
    • Canvassing
    • Grassroots fundraising
    • Smear campaign
    • Opposition research
    • Push poll
    • Retail politics
  • Power politics
    • Balance of power
    • Bandwagoning
    • Blackmail
    • Brinkmanship
    • Buck passing
    • Coercion
    • Hard power
    • Sharp power
    • Soft power
    • Smart power
    • Power projection
    • Power vacuum
    • Realpolitik
  • Cloward–Piven strategy
    • Starve the beast
  • Propaganda

Voting behavior

Political dysfunction

  • Political conflict
    • Civil disobedience
      • Boycott
      • Demonstration
      • Nonviolence
      • Picketing
      • Strike action
      • Tax resistance
    • Civil war
    • Insurgency
      • Asymmetric warfare
      • Assassination
      • Guerrilla warfare
    • Law of war
      • International criminal law
      • Just war theory
      • War crime
    • Revolution
      • Bourgeois revolution
      • Communist revolution
      • Democratic revolution
      • Nonviolent revolution
      • Social revolution
      • Political revolution
      • Vanguardism
      • World revolution
    • Terrorism
      • Nationalist-separatist terrorism
      • Propaganda of the deed
      • Religious extremist terrorism
      • Right-wing terrorism
      • Left-wing terrorism
  • Political corruption
    • Bribery
    • Cronyism
    • Economics of corruption
    • Nepotism
    • Political patronage
      • Clientelism
      • Earmark
      • Political machine
      • Pork barrel
      • Slush fund
      • Spoils system

Types of polities and forms of government

By level of social organisation

  • Traditional authority, political society which has not gone through state formation.
    • Band society
    • Big man
    • Chiefdom
    • Empire (before New Imperialism).
  • Local government
  • Unitary state (Unitarism)
    • City-state
    • Nation state
  • Federalism
    • Confederation
    • Federation
  • Regional integration
    • Intergovernmental organization
    • Supranational union
      • European Union (European studies)
    • Trade bloc
  • Global governance
    • World state

By formal power structure

  • Feudalism
    • Chinese feudalism
    • Indian feudalism
  • Monarchy/Diarchy
    • Absolute monarchy
    • Constitutional monarchy
    • Elective monarchy
    • Federal monarchy
  • Republic
    • Parliamentary system
      • Westminster system
    • Presidential system
      • Semi-presidential system
      • President for life

By source of power

  • Autocracy, the source of power is the leader.
  • Democracy, the source of power are the people through popular sovereignty.
  • Ethnocracy, the source of power is ethnicity.
  • Meritocracy, the source of power is talent.
    • Noocracy, talent is measured by wisdom.
    • Technocracy, talent is measured by expertise.
  • Stratocracy, the source of power is the military.
    • Military dictatorship
    • Military junta
  • Theocracy, the source of power is God(s).
    • Christian republic
    • Halachic state
    • Hindu nation
    • Islamic republic
  • Oligarchy, the source of power is the elite.
    • Aristocracy, the elite are hereditary.
    • Gerontocracy, the elite are the elderly.
  • Plutocracy, the source of power is wealth.

Political ideologies and philosophies

  • Authoritarianism
    • Absolutism
    • Totalitarianism
  • Left-wing politics, usually focused on increasing egalitarianism.
    • Far-left politics
      • Anarchism
      • Communism
    • Socialism
      • Agrarian socialism
      • Democratic socialism
      • Liberal socialism
      • Libertarian socialism
      • Religious socialism
    • Centre-left politics
      • Social democracy
      • Gradualism
      • Progressivism
      • Reformism
    • Green politics
      • Green anarchism
      • Ecofeminism
      • Eco-socialism
  • Centrism, usually defined by highly pragmatic politics.
    • Radical centrism
    • Syncretic politics
    • Third Position
    • Third Way
  • Liberalism, defined by high valuing of liberty.
    • Classical liberalism
    • Conservative liberalism
    • Neoliberalism
    • Social liberalism
  • Right-wing politics, often defined by opposition to social change, and a veneration of tradition.
    • Centre-right politics
      • Christian democracy
      • Compassionate conservatism
      • Liberal conservatism
      • One-nation conservatism
      • Progressive conservatism
    • Conservatism
      • Fiscal conservatism
      • Fusionism
      • Libertarian conservatism
      • National conservatism
      • Neoconservatism
      • Paleoconservatism
      • Social conservatism
      • Traditional conservatism
    • Far-right politics, political ideas which are described as reactionary, ultranationalist, chauvinistic, xenophobic or racist.[3]
      • Alt-right
      • Fascism
      • Nazism
  • Identity politics, political ideologies concerned with the interests of the members of a specific group.
    • Black power
    • Feminism
    • Gay pride
    • Indigenism
    • Islamism
    • Nationalism, based on the centrality of the nation.
      • Civic nationalism
      • Ethnic nationalism
      • Expansionist nationalism
      • Irredentism
      • Pan-nationalism
      • Racial nationalism
      • Left-wing nationalism
      • Liberal nationalism
      • Secessionism
    • Zionism

Governments of the world

  • v
  • t
  • e
Government of Africa
Sovereign states
States with limited
recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
  • Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla  (Spain)
  • Madeira (Portugal)
  • Mayotte / Réunion (France)
  • Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom)
  • Western Sahara
  • v
  • t
  • e
Government of North America
Sovereign states
Dependencies and
other territories
  • v
  • t
  • e
Government of South America
Sovereign states
  • Argentina
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Guyana
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Suriname
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela
Dependencies and
other territories
  • v
  • t
  • e
Government of Asia
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
  • Category
  • Asia portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Government in Europe
Sovereign states
States with limited
recognition
Dependencies and
other entities
Other entities
  • v
  • t
  • e
Government of Oceania
Sovereign states
Associated states
of New Zealand
Dependencies
and other territories

Political issues and policies

Rights

Economic policy

  • Agricultural policy
    • Agricultural subsidy
    • Land reform
  • Energy policy
    • Nuclear energy policy
    • Renewable energy policy
  • Fiscal policy
    • Budgetary policy
  • Industrial policy
    • Import substitution industrialization
  • Investment policy
    • Sovereign wealth fund
  • Monetary policy
    • Capital requirement
    • Central bank
    • Contractionary monetary policy
    • Expansionary monetary policy
  • Tax policy
    • Internet taxation
    • Tax cut
    • Tax competition
    • Tax holiday
    • Tax reform
      • Flat tax
      • Tax harmonization

Foreign and security policy

  • Arms control
    • Nuclear disarmament
      • Nuclear-free zone
      • Nuclear nonproliferation
  • Criminal justice
    • Capital punishment
    • Life imprisonment
    • Mandatory sentencing
  • Space policy
    • Extraterrestrial real estate
    • Militarization of space
      • Space force
  • Counter-terrorism
    • Anti-terrorism legislation
  • International Trade
  • Military policy
    • Military recruitment
      • Conscription
    • Military-industrial complex

Social policy

Politics by continent

  • v
  • t
  • e
Politics of Africa
Sovereign states
States with limited
recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
  • v
  • t
  • e
Politics of Asia
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
  • Category
  • Asia portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Politics of Europe
Sovereign states
States with limited
recognition
Dependencies and
other entities
Other entities
  • v
  • t
  • e
Sovereign states
Dependencies and
other territories
  • v
  • t
  • e
Politics of Oceania
Sovereign states
Associated states
of New Zealand
Dependencies
and other territories
  • v
  • t
  • e
Sovereign states
  • Argentina
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Guyana
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Suriname
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela
Dependencies and
other territories

Foreign relations by continents

  • v
  • t
  • e
Foreign relations of Africa
Sovereign states
States with limited
recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
  • v
  • t
  • e
Foreign relations of North America
Sovereign states
Dependencies and
other territories
  • v
  • t
  • e
Foreign relations of Oceania
Sovereign states
Associated states
of New Zealand
Dependencies
and other territories
  • American Samoa
  • Christmas Island
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • Easter Island
  • French Polynesia
  • Guam
  • Hawaii
  • New Caledonia
  • Norfolk Island
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Pitcairn Islands
  • Tokelau
  • Wallis and Futuna
  • v
  • t
  • e
Foreign relations of South America
Sovereign states
Dependencies and
other territories

Political parties by continent

  • v
  • t
  • e
Sovereign states
States with limited
recognition
Dependencies and
other territories

History of politics

Political scholars

Influential literature

  • The Art of War – by Sun Tsu (c. 544–496 BC)
  • History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides (c. 460 – c. 400 BC)
  • The Republic and Laws – by Plato (427–347 BC)
  • The Politics and Nicomachean Ethics – Aristotle (384–322 BC)
  • ArthashastraChāṇakya[4] (c. 350–283 BC)
  • MeditationsMarcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor 161–180 CE
  • The Prince – by Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527)
  • The Book of Five Rings – Miyamoto Musashi (c. 1584––1645)
  • Leviathan – Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679)
  • The Wealth of Nations – by Adam Smith (1723–1790)
  • On War – by Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831)
  • The Communist Manifesto – by Karl Marx (1818-1883)

See also

  • v
  • t
  • e
Wikipedia Outlines
General reference
  • Culture and the arts
  • Geography and places
  • Health and fitness
  • History and events
  • Mathematics and logic
  • Natural and physical sciences
  • People and self
  • Philosophy and thinking
  • Religion and belief systems
  • Society and social sciences
  • Technology and applied sciences
  • iconPolitics portal
  • Anthropology
  • Constitutional economics
  • Debate
  • Food politics
  • Government simulation game
  • Music and politics
  • Policy
  • Rule According to Higher Law
  • Office politics
  • Official statistics
  • Organizational politics
  • Political activism
  • Political corruption
  • Political criticism
  • Political economy
  • Political fiction (list)
  • Political movement
  • Political party (list by country)
  • Political power
  • Political psychology
  • Political spectrum
  • Theories of Political Behavior

Further reading

  • Roskin, M.; Cord, R. L.; Medeiros, J. A.; Jones, W. S. (2007). Political Science: An Introduction. 10th ed. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-242575-9 (10). ISBN 978-0-13-242575-9 (13).
  • Tausch, A.; Prager, F. (1993). Towards a Socio-Liberal Theory of World Development. Basingstoke: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Oxford Handbooks of Political Science – ten-volume set covering the political science topics political methodology, public policy, political theory, political economy, comparative politics, contextual political analysis, international relations, Law and Politics, political behavior, and political institutions. The general editor of the series is Robert E. Goodin.[5][6]

References

  1. ^ Suissa, Judith (2001). "Anarchism, Utopias and Philosophy of Education". Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (4). pp. 627–646. doi:10.1111/1467-9752.00249.
  2. ^ Mill, John Stuart (1861). "Chapter VII, Of True and False Democracy; Representation of All, and Representation of the Majority only". Considerations on Representative Government. London: Parker, Son, & Bourn.
  3. ^ Carlisle, Rodney P., ed., The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right (Thousand Oaks, California, United States; London, England; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005) p. 693.
  4. ^ Mabbett 1964 "References to the work in other Sanskrit literature attribute it variously to Viṣṇugupta, Cāṇakya and Kauṭilya. The same individual is meant in each case. The Pańcatantra explicitly identifies Chanakya with Viṣṇugupta."
  5. ^ Oxford Handbook Of Political Theory
  6. ^ Walsh, Mary (1 May 2008). "The Oxford Handbook of Political Theory". Contemporary Political Theory. 7 (2): 232–234. doi:10.1057/cpt.2008.2.

From plato

External links

Political science at Wikipedia's sister projects
  • Definitions from Wiktionary
  • Media from Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • Quotations from Wikiquote
  • Texts from Wikisource
  • Textbooks from Wikibooks
  • Resources from Wikiversity
  • American Political Science Association
  • European Consortium for Political Research
  • International Political Science Association
  • Political Studies Association of the UK
  • PROL: Political Science Research Online (prepublished research)
  • Truman State University Political Science Research Design Handbook
  • A New Nation Votes: American Elections Returns 1787-1825
  • Political links resource