Structure of the Common Security and Defence Policy

European Union military structure

Coordinates: 50°50′43″N 4°23′25″E / 50.84528°N 4.39028°E / 50.84528; 4.39028

This article is part of a series on
Flag of Europe.svg
  •  Austria
  •  Belgium
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Croatia
  •  Cyprus
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Denmark
  •  Estonia
  •  Finland
  •  France
  •  Germany
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
  •  Ireland
  •  Italy
  •  Latvia
  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malta
  •  Netherlands
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Romania
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden




  • Treaty of Paris (1951)
  • Treaty of Rome (1957)
  • Euratom Treaty (1957)
  • Merger Treaty (1965)
  • Single European Act (1986)
  • Maastricht Treaty (1992)
  • Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)
  • Treaty of Nice (2001)
  • Treaty of Lisbon (2007)


Treaties of accession
1972, 1979, 1985, 1994, 2003, 2005, 2011

Treaties of succession
1984, 2020

Other treaties
  • Schengen Agreement (1985)
  • European Economic Area Agreement (1992)

Abandoned treaties and agreements
Executive institutions
European Council

European Commission

Council of the EU
 Czech Republic
(July–December 2022)

Configurations


European Parliament
(Members)

Judicial institutions
Economic and monetary institutions
European Central Bank
Other bodies
European Investment Bank Group
  • Investment Bank
  • Investment Fund
  • EIB Institute

European Stability Mechanism
  • European Stability Mechanism

European University Institute
  • European University Institute

Unified Patent Court
  • Unified Patent Court


Other independent bodies


Inter-institutional bodies
Euratom members
  •  Austria
  •  Belgium
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Croatia
  •  Cyprus
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Denmark
  •  Estonia
  •  Finland
  •  France
  •  Germany
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
  •  Ireland
  •  Italy
  •  Latvia
  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malta
  •  Netherlands
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Romania
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden

Associated states
  •  Switzerland
  •  United Kingdom

Euratom since 1 January 2021
Eurozone members
  • Austria Austria
  • Belgium Belgium
  • Cyprus Cyprus
  • Estonia Estonia
  • Finland Finland
  • France France
  • Germany Germany
  • Greece Greece
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • Italy Italy
  • Latvia Latvia
  • Lithuania Lithuania
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg
  • Malta Malta
  • Netherlands Netherlands
  • Portugal Portugal
  • Slovakia Slovakia
  • Slovenia Slovenia
  • Spain Spain



Eurogroup



  • Bulgaria Bulgarian lev
  • Croatia Croatian kuna
  • Czech Republic Czech koruna
  • Denmark Danish krone
  • Hungary Hungarian forint
  • Poland Polish złoty
  • Romania Romanian leu
  • Sweden Swedish krona


Non Euro countries relationship to Euro
Eurozone since 2015
Schengen Area
  •  Austria
  •  Belgium
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Denmark
  •  Estonia
  •  Finland
  •  France
  •  Germany
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
  •  Italy
  •  Latvia
  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malta
  •  Netherlands
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden

Non-EU members
  •  Iceland
  •  Liechtenstein
  •  Norway
  •  Switzerland


Non-Schengen Area states
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Croatia
  •  Cyprus
  •  Ireland
  •  Romania
Schengen Area since 2015
European Economic Area
EEA members
  • Austria Austria
  • Belgium Belgium
  • Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • Cyprus Cyprus
  • Czech Republic Czech Republic
  • Denmark Denmark
  • Estonia Estonia
  • Finland Finland
  • France France
  • Germany Germany
  • Greece Greece
  • Hungary Hungary
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • Italy Italy
  • Latvia Latvia
  • Lithuania Lithuania
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg
  • Malta Malta
  • Netherlands Netherlands
  • Poland Poland
  • Portugal Portugal
  • Romania Romania
  • Slovakia Slovakia
  • Slovenia Slovenia
  • Spain Spain
  • Sweden Sweden

Non-EU members
  •  Iceland
  •  Liechtenstein
  •  Norway

Topics
European Economic Area
  • 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994
    1999, 2004, 2009, 2014
  • 2019 (last election)
  • European political parties
  • Constituencies

Elections in EU member states
  • Austria Austria
  • Belgium Belgium
  • Bulgaria Bulgaria
  • Croatia Croatia
  • Cyprus Cyprus
  • Czech Republic Czech Republic
  • Denmark Denmark
  • Estonia Estonia
  • Finland Finland
  • France France
  • Germany Germany
  • Greece Greece
  • Hungary Hungary
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • Italy Italy
  • Latvia Latvia
  • Lithuania Lithuania
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg
  • Malta Malta
  • Netherlands Netherlands
  • Poland Poland
  • Portugal Portugal
  • Romania Romania
  • Slovakia Slovakia
  • Slovenia Slovenia
  • Spain Spain
  • Sweden Sweden

Law
Policies and issues
  • Josep Borrell


Foreign relations of EU member states



  • G7
  • G20
Defunct bodies
flag European Union portal
  • v
  • t
  • e

This article outlines the present structure of the European Union's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), a part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) based on articles 42–46 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU).[1][2] Article 42.2 of TEU states that the CSDP includes the 'progressive framing' of a common Union defence policy, and will lead to a common defence, when the European Council of national heads of state or government, acting unanimously, so decides.

The CSDP involves military or civilian missions being deployed to preserve peace, prevent conflict and strengthen international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states[a] as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The CSDP structure, headed by the Union's High Representative (HR/VP), Josep Borrell Fontelles, comprises:

The EU does not have a permanent military command structure along the lines of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Allied Command Operations (ACO), although it has been agreed that ACO resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions. The MPCC, established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, does however represent the EU's first step in developing a permanent military headquarters. In parallel, the newly established European Defence Fund (EDF) marks the first time the EU budget is used to finance multinational defence projects. The CSDP structure is sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union (EDU), especially in relation to its prospective development as the EU's defence arm.[3][4][5][b]

Decisions relating to the CSDP are proposed by the HR/VP, adopted by the FAC, generally requiring unanimity, and then implemented by the HR/VP.

Deployment procedure

Military operations may be launched after four planning phases, through which the Operation Commander (Op. Cdr.), Military Staff (EUMS), Military Committee (EUMC), Political and Security Committee (PSC) and Council have different roles:[6]

I: Political Framework for Crisis Approach (PFCA)
II: Crisis Management Concept (CMC)
III: Military Strategic Options (MSO, unless within CMC) and Initiating Military Directive (IMD)
IV: Concept of Operations (CONOPS), Operations Plan (OPLAN) and Rules of Engagement (ROE)

Overview

All military or civilian missions of the European Union (EU), as part of its Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), are planned and conducted by an operation headquarters (OHQ).

All civilian missions are directed by the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC), a directorate of the External Action Service (EEAS) in Brussels, Belgium.

For each military mission an OHQ is chosen. The EU does not have a permanent military command structure along the lines of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Allied Command Operations (ACO), although it has been agreed that ACO resources may be used for the conduct of the EU's CSDP missions. The Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC), established in 2017 and to be strengthened in 2020, does however represent the EU's first step in developing a permanent operational headquarters (OHQ).

The EU command and control (C2) structure is directed by political bodies composed of member states' representatives, and generally requires unanimous decisions. As of April 2019:[7]

Liaison:       Advice and recommendations       Support and monitoring       Preparatory work     
  • v
  • t
  • e
Political strategic level:[5]
ISSEUCO Pres. (EUCO)Chain of command
Coordination/support
SatCenCIVCOMHR/VP (FAC)
INTCENHR/VP (PMG)HR/VP (PSC)[6]Coat of arms of Europe.svg Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
CEUMC (EUMC)
CMPDCoat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
DGEUMS[3] (EUMS)
Military/civilian strategic level:
Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
Dir MPCC[3] (MPCC)
JSCCCiv OpCdr CPCC[1]
Operational level:
MFCdr[4] (MFHQ)HoM[1]
Tactical level:
CC[2] LandCC[2] AirCC[2] MarOther CCs[2]
ForcesForcesForcesForces


1 In the event of a CSDP Civilian Mission also being in the field, the relations with the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) and its Civilian Operation Commander (Civ OpCdr), as well as the subordinate Head of Mission (HoM), are coordinated as shown.
2 Other Component Commanders (CCs) and service branches which may be established.
3 The MPCC is part of the EUMS and Dir MPCC is double-hatted as DGEUMS. Unless the MPCC is used as Operation Headquarters (OHQ), either a national OHQ offered by member states or the NATO Command Structure (NCS) would serve this purpose. In the latter instance, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (DSACEUR), rather than Dir MPCC, would serve as Operation Commander (OpCdr).
4 Unless the MPCC is used as Operation Headquarters (OHQ), the MFCdr would be known as a Force Commander (FCdr), and direct a Force Headquarters (FHQ) rather than a MFHQ. Whereas the MFHQ would act both on the operational and tactical level, the FHQ would act purely on the operational level.
5 The political strategic level is not part of the C2 structure per se, but represents the political bodies, with associated support facilities, that determine the missions' general direction. The Council determines the role of the High Representative (HR/VP), who serves as Vice-President of the European Commission, attends European Council meetings, chairs the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC) and may chair the Political and Security Committee (PSC) in times of crisis. The HR/VP proposes and implements CSDP decisions.
6 Same composition as Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER) II, which also prepares for the CSDP-related work of the FAC.

Bodies and political leadership

High Representative

High Representative Josep Borrell

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, commonly referred to as the High Representative (HR/VP), is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including the CSDP. The position is currently held by Josep Borrell.

Where foreign matters is agreed between EU member states, the High Representative can speak for the EU in that area, such as negotiating on behalf of the member states.

Beside representing the EU at international fora and co-ordinating the CFSP and the CSDP, the HR/VP is:

European Commission

External Action Service

The European External Action Service (EEAS) is the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the EU. The EEAS is led by the HR/VP and seated in Brussels.

The EEAS does not propose or implement policy in its own name, but prepares acts to be adopted by the HR/VP, the European Commission or the Council.[8] The EEAS is also in charge of EU diplomatic missions (delegations)[9] and intelligence and crisis management structures.[10][11][12]

The following EEAS bodies take part in managing the CSDP:

The relationship between the High Representative, the Military Staff and Military Committee as of November 2017:[18] Colour key:
  High Representative (a Vice-President of the Commission)
  Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg Military Committee (EUMC; a Council body)
  Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg Military Staff (EUMS; a Directorate-General of the External Action Service)

High Representative
Coat of arms of Europe.svg
Chairman EUMC
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
Working Group
Golden star.svg
Emblem of the European Union Military Committee Working Group - Headline Goal Task Force.svg
Working Group/Headline Goal Task Force
Director General EUMS/
Director MPCC
Golden star.svgGolden star.svgGolden star.svg
Legal advisorDeputy Director General
Golden star.svgGolden star.svg
Horizontal Coordination
Assistant Chief of Staff for SynchronisationEU cell at SHAPEEU Liaison at the UN in NYAssistant Chief of Staff for External RelationsNATO Permanent Liaison Team
Concepts & Capabilities
Directorate
Golden star.svg
Intelligence
Directorate
Golden star.svg
Operations
Directorate
Golden star.svg
Logistics
Directorate
Golden star.svg
Communications & Information Systems
Directorate
Golden star.svg
Military Planning and
Conduct Capability (MPCC)
Chief of Staff
Golden star.svg
Working Group
Current Operations


Council

General Graziano has served as Chairman of the Military Committee since 2018

The Council of the European Union has the following, Brussels-based preparatory bodies in the field of CSDP:

Agencies

Structure of the Common Security and Defence Policy is located in European Union
EEAS, EDA, Council, Commission
EEAS, EDA, Council, Commission
class=notpageimage|
Location of decentralised CSDP agencies in addition to the Brussels-based External Action Service (EEAS), Defence Agency (EDA) and Council

The following agencies relate to the CSDP:

  • The Defence Agency (EDA), based in Brussels, facilitates the improvement of national military capabilities and integration. In that capacity, it makes proposals, coordinates, stimulates collaboration, and runs projects.
  • The Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex), based in Warsaw, Poland, leads the European coast guard that controls the borders of the Schengen Area.
  • The Institute for Security Studies (ISS), based in Paris, is an autonomous think tank that researches EU-relevant security issues. The research results are published in papers, books, reports, policy briefs, analyses and newsletters. In addition, the institute convenes seminars and conferences on relevant issues that bring together EU officials, national experts, decision-makers and NGO representatives from all Member States.
  • The Satellite Centre (SatCen), located in Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain, supports the decision-making by providing products and services resulting from the exploitation of relevant space assets and collateral data, including satellite and aerial imagery, and related services.

Permanent structured cooperation

The Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) is the framework in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. Based on Article 42.6 and Protocol 10 of the Treaty on European Union, introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, PESCO was first initiated in 2017.[24] The initial integration within the PESCO format is a number of projects planned to launch in 2018.[25]

PESCO is similar to enhanced co-operation in other policy areas, in the sense that integration does not require that all EU member states participate.

Funding of missions

Defence industry coordination and research funding

The European Defence Fund is an EU-managed fund for coordinating and increasing national investment in defence research and improve interoperability between national forces. It was proposed in 2016 by President Jean-Claude Juncker and established in 2017 to a value of €5.5 billion per year. The fund has two stands; research (€90 million until the end of 2019 and €500 million per year after 2020) and development & acquisition (€500 million in total for 2019–20 then €1 billion per year after 2020).[26]

Together with the Coordinated Annual Review on Defence and Permanent Structured Cooperation it forms a new comprehensive defence package for the EU.[27]

EU-developed infrastructure for military use includes:

See also

  • Structure of NATO

Notes

  1. ^ The responsibility of collective selv-defence within the CSDP is based on Article 42.7 of TEU, which states that this responsibility does not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, referring to policies of nautrality. See Neutral country§European Union for discussion on this subject.According to the Article 42.7 "If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. This shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States." Article 42.2 furthermore specifies that NATO shall be the main forum for the implementation of collective self-defence for EU member states that are also NATO members.
  2. ^ Akin to the EU’s banking union, economic and monetary union and customs union.

References

  1. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon". EU. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011.
  2. ^ Article 42, Treaty on European Union
  3. ^ "Texts adopted - Tuesday, 22 November 2016 - European Defence Union - P8_TA(2016)0435". www.europarl.europa.eu.
  4. ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - European Commission welcomes first operational steps towards a European Defence Union *". europa.eu.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-25. Retrieved 2019-09-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "The EU Military Staff: A frog in boiling water?". 2017-08-10.
  7. ^ EU Command and Control, p. 13, Military Staff
  8. ^ Gatti, Mauro (2016). European External Action Service : Promoting Coherence through Autonomy and Coordination. Leiden: Brill. p. 148. ISBN 9789004323612. OCLC 951833456.
  9. ^ Art. 5 of COUNCIL DECISION establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service PDF, Council of the European Union, 20 July 2010
  10. ^ "The Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD)".
  11. ^ "The Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC)".
  12. ^ "The European Union Military Staff (EUMS)".
  13. ^ "EU military HQ to take charge of Africa missions".
  14. ^ "EU defence cooperation: Council establishes a Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC) - Consilium". www.consilium.europa.eu.
  15. ^ "Permanent Structured Cooperation: An Institutional Pathway for European Defence « CSS Blog Network". isnblog.ethz.ch.
  16. ^ SCADPlus: European Security and Defence College (ESDC) Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved on 4 March 2008
  17. ^ Sylvain, Paile (1 September 2011). "Europe for the Future Officers, Officers for the Future Europe - Compendium of the European Military Officers Basic Education". hdl:2268/100625. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/impetus_24_dp_final_1.pdf
  19. ^ France-Diplomatie: The main bodies specific to the CFSP: The Political and Security Committee, accessed on 21 April 2008
  20. ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - High Representative Catherine Ashton appoints new Chair of the Political and Security Committee, a new Head of Delegation/EU Special Representative to Afghanistan, and new Heads of Delegation to Mauritania and Sierra Leone". europa.eu.
  21. ^ The Council of the European Union: ESDP Structures Archived 2008-12-23 at the Wayback Machine, accessed on 21 April 2008
  22. ^ "Preparatory document related to CESDP: Establishment of a European Union committee for civilian crisis management (Press Release: Brussels 10/3/2000)" (PDF).
  23. ^ "Politico-Military Group (PMG) - Consilium". www.consilium.europa.eu.
  24. ^ Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) - Factsheet, European External Action Service
  25. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/32079/pesco-overview-of-first-collaborative-of-projects-for-press.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  26. ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - A European Defence Fund: €5.5 billion per year to boost Europe's defence capabilities". europa.eu.
  27. ^ Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) – Factsheet, European External Action Service

Further reading

  • v
  • t
  • e
Leadership
Structure
External Action Service
Agencies
Council preparatory bodies
European Commission bodies
Policies
Other
Equipment
Decorations
  • v
  • t
  • e
Multinational
Union level
Battlegroups
Other
Provided through
TEU Article 42.3
  • v
  • t
  • e
Overseas interventions of the European Union1
Military operations
[Ground] force (EUFOR)
Naval force (EUNAVFOR)
  • Adriatic Sea (Operation Sharp Guard, 1993–1996)
  • Somalia (Operation Atalanta, 2008–present)
  • Mediterranean Sea (Operation Sophia, 2015–2020, Operation Irini, 2020-present)
Military missions
Training mission (EUTM)
Civilian missions
Police mission (EUPOL, EUPM)
Capacity building mission (EUCAP)
  • Sahel Mali (2014–present)
  • Sahel Niger (2012–present)
  • Somalia (2012–present)
Border assistance mission (EUBAM)
Rule of law mission (EULEX)
  • Kosovo (2008–present)
Monitoring mission (EUMM)
  • Aceh (2005–2006)
  • Georgia (2008–present)
Military advisory mission (EUMAM)
  • RCA (2015–2016)
Aviation security mission (EUAVSEC)
  • South Sudan (2013–2014)
Mission in support of the
security sector reform (EUSSR)
  • Guinea-Bissau (2008–2010)
Integrated rule of law mission (EUJUST)
  • Iraq (2015–2013)
  • Georgia (2004–2005)
Mission to provide advice and assistance
for security sector reform (EUSEC)
  • RD Congo (2005–2016)
Advisory mission (EUAM)
  • Ukraine (2014–present)
  • Iraq (2017–present)
Police advisory team (EUPAT)
  • FYROM (2005–2006)
Other
  • AMIS EU Supporting Action (2005–2007)
  • PAMECA (2002–present)
  • Minesweeping operation in the Strait of Hormuz, (Operation Cleansweep, 1987–1988)
  • Police and customs operation with OSCE on the Danube (1993–1996)
  • Police contingent in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994–1996)
  • Multinational Advisory Police Element in Albania (MAPE, 1997–2001)
  • Demining Assistance Mission to Croatia (WEUDAM, 1999–2001)
  • General security surveillance mission in Kosovo (1998–1999)
1: Conducted by the Western European Union prior to 2003. These missions were not named using conventional prefixes such as EUFOR, EUNAVFOR etc.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Western Union (1948–1951/1954) Flag of the Western Union.svg
  • Treaty of Dunkirk (precursor, 1947)
  • Treaty of Brussels (1948)
  • Flag
  • Exercise Verity (1949)
  • Operation Gladio
European Defence Community (plan that failed in 1954)
Western European Union (1954–2011) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg Flag of the Western European Union.svg
European Union (1992–present) Flag of Europe.svg
Period before the union had defence structures (1993–1999)
  • Maastricht Treaty (1992)
  • Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)
  • Saint-Malo declaration (1998)
European Security and Defence Policy (1999–2009)
  • Helsinki Headline Goal (1999)
  • Seville Declarations (2002)
  • European Security Strategy (2003)
  • CAPECON project (2002–2005)
Common Security and Defence Policy (2009–present)
  • Treaty of Lisbon (2007)
  • Lancaster House Treaties (2010)
  • Operations Centre (2012–2016)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Militaries of the European Union
Austrian Armed Forces


Map of Southeast Asia
Belgian Armed Forces
  • Belgian Land Component
  • Belgian Air Component
  • Belgian Naval Component
  • Belgian Medical Component
Bulgarian Armed Forces
  • Bulgarian Land Forces
  • Bulgarian Air Force
  • Bulgarian Navy
Armed Forces of Croatia
  • Croatian Army
  • Croatian Air Force
  • Croatian Navy
Cypriot National Guard
Army of the Czech Republic
  • Czech Land Forces
  • Czech Air Force
Danish Defence
Estonian Defence Forces
  • Estonian Land Forces
  • Estonian Navy
  • Estonian Air Force
Finnish Defence Forces
  • Finnish Army
  • Finnish Air Force
  • Finnish Navy
French Armed Forces
Bundeswehr
  • German Army
  • German Navy
  • German Air Force
  • Joint Support Service
  • Joint Medical Service
  • Cyber and Information Domain Service
Hellenic Armed Forces
Hungarian Defence Forces
  • Hungarian Ground Forces
  • Hungarian Air Force
Irish Defence Forces
  • Irish Army
  • Irish Air Corps
  • Irish Naval Service
  • Reserve Defence Forces
Italian Armed Forces
  • Italian Army
  • Italian Navy
  • Italian Air Force
  • Carabinieri
Latvian National Armed Forces
  • Latvian Land Forces
  • Latvian Naval Forces
  • Latvian Air Force
  • Latvian National Guard
Lithuanian Armed Forces
Luxembourg Army
Armed Forces of Malta
Netherlands Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
  • Polish Land Forces
  • Polish Air Force
  • Polish Navy
  • Polish Special Forces
  • Territorial Defence Force
Portuguese Armed Forces
  • Portuguese Army
  • Portuguese Navy
  • Portuguese Air Force
  • National Republican Guard
Romanian Armed Forces
  • Romanian Land Forces
  • Romanian Naval Forces
  • Romanian Air Force
Slovak Armed Forces
  • Slovak Ground Forces
  • Slovak Air Force
  • SK SOCOM
Slovenian Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
  • Swedish Army
  • Swedish Air Force
  • Swedish Navy
  • Home Guard
EU member states
Austria Austria
Belgium Belgium
Bulgaria Bulgaria
Croatia Croatia
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic
Denmark Denmark
Estonia Estonia
Finland Finland
France France
Germany Germany
Greece Greece
Hungary Hungary
Republic of Ireland Ireland
Italy Italy
Latvia Latvia
Lithuania Lithuania
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta
Netherlands Netherlands
Poland Poland
Portugal Portugal
Romania Romania
Slovakia Slovakia
Slovenia Slovenia
Spain Spain
Sweden Sweden
European Union portal · War portal